Author contributions: S. While tobacco is one of the most heavily consumed and abused plant substances of the modern era, with profound global health consequences, its early use remains poorly understood. Here we report a substantial direct biomolecular record of ancient tobacco smoking by hunter-gatherers of interior northwestern North America. Nicotine-positive samples demonstrate deep time continuity of indigenous tobacco smoking in a place where tobacco has been depicted as being introduced by early Euro-American traders and explorers. The spread of domesticated trade tobacco seems to have overtaken and obscured ancient indigenous tobacco practices. The information—represented here by the longest continuous biomolecular record of tobacco use from a single region—informs programs designed to combat persistent commercial tobacco use rates among modern Tribal communities.
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What are some of the main goals of research at these sites, and what are some methods commonly used to investigate military sites? What are some of these differences? Why do archaeologists spend so much time studying this one particular kind of material culture?
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Put This in Your Pipe and Smoke it : An Evaluation of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Methods
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Alexander, L. T. More Light on the Theory of Dating Clay Pipes by The “Binford” Pipe Stem Formula: A Return from the Grave.
This is post 4. Week four was defined not by new archaeological discoveries on the site, but by new methodological and interpretive breakthroughs. We got down almost to the bottom of the stairs this week, which is very exciting. Also, we have been informed that there are steps similar to ours in the Palmer-Marsh House, a s house located on the other side of town.
The stairs leading down into the basement kitchen of the house have wide brick steps with short wooden risers, whereas, ours would have had a short brick part and a long wooden step. The wood would have most likely been used to prevent slipping on wet brick. The Palmer-Marsh House has one of the three known 18 th century cellars in Bath, which includes ours and one that Stan South dug in the s in the yard of the P-M House.
One of her goals is to see how connected Bath was to the rest of the world in the 18 th century; if the town was on the end of the world, or was highly involved in the trade and consumerism of the colonial period. Sue excavating the stairs. Courtesy of Lauren McMillan. Credit: Historic Bath click to be redirected to site. We are almost to the bottom of the cellar, and will most likely be done by next week. So, one of the questions I am asking, is why would a communal warehouse be constructed in a way that would require the most bricks, or even with bricks at all?
Put This in Your Pipe and Smoke it: An Evaluation of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Methods
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Lauren McMillan. McMillan There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems.
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Source: Northeast Historical Archaeology. Author s : McMillan, Lauren K. Abstract: There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems. The formulas are based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods: Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s ten linear formulas, and the Heighton and Deagan curvilinear formula. Data on pipe stem-bore diameters were collected from 28 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods.
The results of this project indicate that current conventional use of Binford’s formula, to the exclusion of the other methods, may be problematic, and that the Heighton and Deagan formula is the most accurate of the three options. Copyright of Northeast Historical Archaeology is the property of Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission.
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Toward Settlement Occupation Span from Dispersion of Tobacco-Pipe Stem-Bore Diameter Values
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula.
Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland Virginia North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. Save to Library.
Because the time span of the casemate under study is relatively short about 50 years dating of pipes has been done primarily on the evidence of makers’ marks and names. With the exception of the Dutch bowls, all bowls from which the shape could be deduced appeared to be basically of Oswald’s type 9 Oswald 60, In the New World at least, the export version Oswald’s type 9c and numerous variants and derivatives were universal long after this, and certainly as late as about I.
In England, Oswald’s type 10 continued the more traditional features in various forms. This type continued for most of the 18th century until type 11, a derivative of type 9, became standard and finally set the norm for what is traditionally considered the shape of a British clay pipe. Harrington’s method of dating pipe fragments by bore diameter measurement Harrington was not used in this study, as the relevant Harrington period, , covered virtually the entire occupancy of the area involved.
Binford’s straight-line regression formula based on Harrington’s work Maxwell and Binford ; Binford , however, was applied to the various layers in order to obtain comparative evidence.
Clay pipe stem dating
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Abstract: There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula. Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods.
Of the formulas, the Heighton and Deagan proved to be the most accurate, producing formula mean dates closest to the dates assigned to the sites using other dating techniques. It was also determined that all three formula dating methods work better in Maryland and Virginia than in North and South Carolina. Other aspects of pipe stem dating were explored in this paper including regional consumption patterns and the influences Dutch pipes have on formula dating.
These questions were addressed specifically on sites from the Chesapeake. This analysis supports recent assertions that the Chesapeake should be split into two sub-regions, the Upper and Lower Chesapeake. Email this document to. Additional Information Publication Thesis Date:
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Area of Absent Types for Interpreting an. Occupation End Date. Mean Ceramic Formula Date. Visually interpreted. Occupation Foriod. Brackets. Pipestem Date.
Results further corroborate regression dating, if it needs it, and document qualified but statistically significant correlations between dispersion and occupation span. In the process, they strengthen links between historical and prehistoric archaeology in the science of material culture. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Alexander, L. Quarterly Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Virginia 33 3 — Google Scholar.